Visual Function Classification System

for children with Cerebral Palsy


The Visual Function Classification System is a valid and reliable 5-level classification system of  visual functioning for children with Cerebral Palsy.

It describes the use of visual abilities in daily life, focusing on activity and participation. 

Similar to the other classifications of activity in children with CP (GMFCS, MACS, CFCS, and EDACS), the VFCS is not intended to be used 

as an assessment tool, and does not explain the underlying factors contributing to the level of visual functioning shown by the child.

Working Group and publication

The VFCS working group, lead by Dr. Giovanni Baranello, published the development and validation work in Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology in June 2019

Supplements include the VFCS levels decision chart and distinction between levels



Translations from English into other languages

A number of groups around the World have expressed interest in translating the VFCS. 

The translations based on specific guidelines, including back translations and pre-testing, are in progress in the following languages

  • Danish: University of Copenhagen

  • Dutch: Bartimeus CVI Expert Centre

  • French: IRCCS Fondazione Stella Maris SMILE Lab

  • Georgian: David Tvildiani Medical University

  • German: University Children's Hospital Zurich – Eleonore Foundation

  • Hebrew: Ha'Gan Ha'Shikumi Development Center Keren Or Center Jerusalem

  • Italian: IRCCS Fondazione Stella Maris SMILE Lab

  • Japanese: Department of Public Health Sapporo Medical University School of medicine

  • Norwegian:  Cerebral Palsy Registry of Norway

  • Portuguese: Core Kids Atividades Terapêuticas e Department of Low Vision HCFMUSP University of São Paulo 

  • Russian: Non-commercial organization Physical Rehabilitation located in St Petersburg, Russia

  • Sinhala &TamilNational Centre for Children with Cerebral Palsy and other Developmental Disorders (NCCCPDD)

  • Spanish: University of Castilla-La Mancha

  • Turkish: Gazi University

  • Ukrainian: Kozyavkin International Rehabilitation Clinic

 Want to contribute?

Click here to download the translations guidelines

Contact us via email if you are interested in translating into additional languages.

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